CryopreservationSemen, oocytes, ovarian tissue, embryo cryopreservation
All biological activity is paused until it is thawed. Freezing needs cryopreserving agents that minimize damage to the cells during freezing and thawing process. Semen cryopreservation also called sperm banking is a procedure to preserve sperm cells. It is a method for men to preserve their sperm and store in a bank for future treatment. Cryopreservation is freezing of cells to subzero temperature, typically –196oC.
- Semen with very limited number of spermatozoa or abnormal semen parameters.
- Cancer patients to preserve their fertility prior to gonadotoxic chemotherapy or radiation.
- Patients undergoing certain types of pelvic or testicular surgeries.
- Persons in occupation where significant risk of gonadotoxicity prevails.
- Men undergoing surgical sterilization like vasectomy.
- Allow donor semen samples to be guarantined while performing appropriate screening to prevent transmission of infectious pathogens during donor insemination.
- In combination with ART technique.
- Patient who suffer from degenerative illness like DM, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord, disease, etc.
Ovarian tissue cryopreservation for transplantation
With the newer aggressive treatment regimens, the number of cancer survivors are constantly growing and hence fertility preservation is of high priority. Previously only ovarian stimulation with oocytes or embryo cryopreservation was the only possible option for women to conceive after recovery from a sterilizing cancer treatment. But ovarian stimulation may be incompatible with an urgent cancer treatment cryopreservation.
Transplantation of ovarian tissue helps to overcome such short comings. This technique does not require pre-treatment. It can be performed any day independently of where the patient is in the menstrual cycle. Ovarian tissue banking is a promising clinical technique because it avoids ovarian stimulation and provides opportunity for preserving gonadal function in pre-pubertal as well as adult patient.
Oocyte and embryo cryopreservation
Oocyte cryopreservation or vitrification is a rapidly advancing breakthrough technology in ART where women’s eggs (oocytes) are extracted, frozen and stored. Later when pregnancy is desired, the eggs can be thawed, fertilized and transferred to the uterus.
Fertility and fecundity decreases with age. So women who would like to preserve their future ability to have children, either because they do not have a partner or for other personal or medical reasons. It is done as a part of ART treatment for couples who do not consider embryo freezing an option. It is also performed in those diagnosed with cancer and have not yet begun chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
The egg retrieval process for oocytes cryopreservation is same as that for IVF. The women undergo several weeks of hormonal injection for stimulation. Once the eggs are of adequate size, final maturation induction is performed and eggs are subsequently removed from the body under ultrasound guidance and are frozen using cryoprotectants which replace most of the water within the cells and inhibit formation of ice crystals. The percentage of transfer of cycles is lower in frozen cycles when compared with fresh cycle.
Statistics say that about eighty percent of the couple that approach for infertility treatment can be treated by counselling alone and it is only twenty percent of them that require some form of infertility treatment.
Infertility is not a disease but a condition where in a particular couple is not able to conceive. Infertility problems in a couple can be due to either the woman or the man, or it can be even due to problems in both ….
Infertility diagnosis is performed initially, by collecting complete medical history and physical examination. It will then followed by diagnostic tests for infertility. The common tests are urine tests, blood tests, …….
As the age increases the ovarian reserve (total no of eggs) in the ovary will significantly come down (especially after 33 years) and there seems to be issues in women like fibroid, endometriosis etc which ……
IVF Treatment Procedures
IVF (Invitro Fertilisation) refers to a procedure where women’s egg are removed and fertilized with man’s sperm outside the body in the laboratory. The embryos thus formed are then put back into the uterus ….
Intra Uterine Insemination
IUI and AI are one and the same fertility treatment. A small tube is used to place specially washed sperm directly into the uterus. While fertility drugs are not always used during IUI, most doctors ……
While every fertility clinic’s IVF protocol will be slightly different and IVF treatment are adjusted for a couple’s individual needs, here is a step-by-step breakdown of what generally takes place during an ……
With ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), though, the ovaries become dangerously enlarged with fluid. This fluid can leak in to the belly and chest area, leading to complications. If your doctor …..
Female infertility include problems with ovulation, damage to fallopian tubes or uterus or problems with cervix. Age is another major issue that contribute to infertility because when a women ages, her fertility …….
The objective of the fertility treatment is optimization of outcome with minimization is opting of risk. A flexible dosing during stimulation is essential for optimizing the cycle outcome.
Ovulation analysis is the process by which the fertility is assessed to find the fertile window and general assessment. Various methods exist for ovulation testing. Various methods exist for ovulation testing.
It is used to know whether the fallopian tubes of the patient are blocked and whether blockage is at the junction of tube of uterus (proximal) or at the distal end. Radiographic contrast dye is …….
Cryopreserving agents that minimize damage to the cells during freezing and thawing process. Semen cryopreservation also called sperm banking is a procedure to preserve sperm cells.
Transvaginal sonography is one of the indispensable investigation as far as infertility patient is concerned. It is non-invasive and the single test that parallels to clinical assessment. Assessing the …..
As the women gets older the incidence of chromosomally abnormal eggs increases dramatically. The mecoha spindle is a critical component of eggs that is involved in organising the chromosome ….
All the macroscopic parameters in semen analysis, denote the functional capacity of the necessary male organs namely seminal vesicles, prostate and whether or if the whole tract from testes to the …..
In general, semen analysis, hysterosalpingogram, assessment of ovulation and ovarian reserve should be the initial investigations and if no cause of infertility found, laparoscopy should be done.
Anything that effect the hypothalamus pituitary endocrine system which regulates the sperm production can be detrimental. There are also a wide variety of physical problems like varicocele, ……
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